|UPOV Pusher||Implementing UPOV91||Pushed into UPOV91 but not yet joined or resisting*||Not UPOV91 members, but covered by UPOV91 through a multilateral agreement**|
UPOV is the International Union for the Protection of New Plant Varieties.
*Cases of countries not joining or resisting UPOV occur when these countries sign the trade deal but don't change their seed law and/or don't push through with UPOV membership, e.g. due to strong pressure from citizens or a government's reluctance to amend its seed laws.
**Countries not member of UPOV91 but implementing its provisions through another mechanism, e.g. as part of a regional intellectual property organisation like OAPI or as members of a regional economic grouping like Comesa.